Investigation of Neurology   Procedures


Unexplained seizures

Paresis / paralysis

Movement disorders

Cranial nerve abnormalities eg

  • trismus (lock jaw)
  • facial nerve parasis (dropped jaw)
  • vestibular signs


Dog with severe neck pain: transverse (above) and sagital (right) MRI revealed degenerate discs at C5/6 and C6/7. They were removed and pain resolved

 neurocysticercosis 2

 Dog with sudden onset seizures and drifting to the right that had 13 tapeworm cysts in his brain (2 visible)




Lesion localisation

CSF collection

MRI scan

fluorscopy guided disc aspirates


improved control of seizures in epileptics

Investigation of Cardiorespiratory medicine   Procedures

Unexplained murmur in a puppy

Exercise intolerance / fainting

Chronic cough

Chronic nasal discharge

Pleural effusion

Congestive heart failure




Draining pericardial effusion

Aspiration of thoracic mass



Rhinoscopy and biopsy

Placing thoracic drains


 Top left: colour flow Doppler of a patent ductus arteriosus

Top right: ECG in progress

Bottom left: Continuous wave Doppler of a dog with mitral regurgitation and atrial fibrillation




   This dog presented with epistaxis (a nose bleed) for 6 months. The transverse CT image on the left shows a slice through the sinuses, eye socket, facial crest and nasal turbinates. The lower jaw and tongue appear separately below. There is a mass of the right of the hard palate (left on image) that contains mineral density (white material) and is destroying the hard palate and facial bones. It is growing into the eye socket. The image on the right is a 3D reconstruction of this CT showing the extent of the destruction this tumour has wrought on the bones of the face    
 Investigation of   Gastrointestinal problems    Procedures

Unexplained icterus

Acute / chronic vomiting

Chronic diarrhoea

Abdominal mass

Acute abdomen


Unexplained ascites


Ultrasound image of an intussusception


Partial intestinal obstruction by caeco-colic intussusception
(gut telescoping on gut) resulting in gas build-up in the gut


Abdominal ultrasound

Ultrasound guided FNA or biopsy

Hunting porto-systemic shunts

Contrast CT

Upper and lower GI endoscopy and biopsy

Retrieval of oesophageal or gastric foreign bodies

 Investigation of Urology      Procedures

Unexplained haematuria

Recurrent UTI

Dysuria / incontinence



Urate crystals in urine of dog with 
porto-systemic shunt (severe liver problem)

Radiograph of a diabetic dog with emphysematous cystitis


Ultrasound guided drainage of prostatic abscesses

Cystoscopy (only larger dogs)

management of acute renal failure

contrast CT to find ectopic ureters

 Investigation of   Endocrinology    Procedures

Multiple endocrine abnormalities


suspected Cushing's

insulin resistance



dog with a pituitary macroadenoma that was successfully removed surgically


Dog with Cushing's myotonia - 
stiff hind legs caused by a hormone problem


 stabilising diabetics

Intensive care of diabetic ketoacidosis


 RIGHT: Oliver, a diabetic cat

in hospital

for his glucose curve

Investigation of Dermatology   Procedures

Chronic itching

Recurrent otitis

Symmetrical alopecias

Ulceration / crusting diseases

Draining sinus tracts

This dog had pus draining 
from wounds on his side for several months

An ultrasound showed a kebab stick had perforated his
stomach and stuck out between the ribs causing infection.



skin biopsies

management of auto-immune skin diseases


CT of the middle ear


 RIGHT: CT of the middle ear

of a Maltese with recurrent otitis

showing an expansile mass

(suspected cholesteatoma)

in the L middle ear

Investigation of Oncology   Procedures

diagnosis and staging of a variety of tumours

P1070817 P1070800  

ultrasound guided FNA

advanced imaging to stage and plan surgery


in house cytology

Dog with an intra-nasal transmissible venereal tumour causing mild facial distortion that responded completely to vincristine treatment. Note round cells with characteristic punched out cytoplasmic vacuoles left  
 Investigation of Others      Procedures

Unexplained anaemias

Other cytopenias

Suspected immune-mediated disease

Bleeding abnormalities

Pyrexia of unknown origin

Peripheral oedema


Dog with low blood proteins causing fluid 
accumulation in abdomen and under skin


Petechiae caused by immune-mediated thrombocytopenia


bone marrow aspirates and biopsies

Blood pressure monitoring